This section contains a review of treatments that have been used in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The review includes conventional treatments that are often covered on other websites, some integrative therapies that may offer potential benefit, and a couple of alternative therapies that pose some risk.
ASD symptoms and severity vary from patient to patient. Thus, there is no right way to treat ASD. Our purpose is not to endorse or suggest the use of specific therapies, but to provide information about the evidence, or lack-there-of, along with potential risks/benefits of various treatment modalities. We recommend, as always, that you talk to your family's healthcare providers about any options you are interested in pursuing.
Individuals with ASD have difficulty with social interactions and communication, as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. These symptoms usually appear before age three. ASD is thought of as a "spectrum" disorder; different people with ASD may have very different symptoms, levels of severity, strengths, and challenges.
The rate of children diagnosed with ASD is increasing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that one in 110 children in the U.S. is affected by ASD. This rate has increased since 2002, when it was one in 166, or since 1999, when it was one in 1,000. Much of this increase is explained by changes in diagnostic practice, including:
However, we cannot rule out that there is a true increase in the risk for ASD.
There is an increasing body of evidence to show that ASD is a neurobiological disorder resulting from several causes, but with a strong genetic basis. However, to date, no biological marker exists to "diagnose" ASD.
A diagnosis of ASD is based on behavioral criteria requiring extensive neuropsychological evaluation, which assesses cognitive, developmental, and language abilities, as well as adaptive behaviors or life skills. 
While the following section focuses on children, a great number of individuals diagnosed with ASD are reaching adolescence and adulthood. Many ASD characteristics require continuous support over a lifetime. As the ASD population ages, there is a growing need for resources to serve adolescents and adults with ASD.
There are many behavioral and educational approaches for individuals with ASD. The best known is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), which is well-supported by evidence. ABA focuses on systematically encouraging (and reinforcing) positive, functional behaviors, while reducing negative or nonfunctional ones, often by teaching a more appropriate replacement skill.
Many studies have shown that children who receive intensive early intervention services-especially those who receive at least two years of intensive intervention prior to entering elementary school-experience significant gains in functional communication, cognitive skills, and behavior and need fewer support services in school.
Developmental models are another common intervention approach. These models aim to meet the child at his or her development level and use the child's current strengths to build new skills. Relationship-based models often engage parents and focus on fostering genuine relationships and creating a desire and ability to live in a changing environment. Many approaches now incorporate both ABA and developmental or "relationship-based" models.
See behavioral and educational resources .
There are many social skills interventions for individuals with ASD, but designing research to measure the effectiveness of these interventions is challenging and there is not much supporting research evidence. Social skills groups that include typically developing children have the most research support. A few examples of social skills strategies include:
Individuals with ASD have challenges communicating with others. A certified speech-language pathologist may work on skills such as:
Occupational therapists help individuals with ASD interact with the world around them. One aspect of occupational therapy is Sensory Integration, which allows the child to interact more effectively by addressing limitations he or she might have in processing information and integrating sensory information.
For example, an occupational therapist may help individuals with ASD by:
Such sensory approaches try to help manage symptoms of ASD, which are highly complex and variable from patient to patient. Due to the complexity of both ASD and sensory-based approaches, the research base for these approaches is limited.
See occupational therapy resources .
Antipsychotic drugs: Some atypical antipsychotics are used to treat irritability and behavioral problems, such as aggression, self-injury, and rapid mood swings. Risperdone (RisperdalTM) which was approved by the FDA in 2006 for irritability (aggression, self-injury, temper tantrums, and rapid mood changes) in individuals with ASD, is the best studied. Recent studies suggest Risperidone may be associated with improved overall functioning and social responsiveness; however, it has associated side effects of weight-gain and adverse metabolic effects (increasing the potential risk of high cholesterol or diabetes).
Alpha-adrenergic agonists: Limited (and often very small) studies of Clonidine and Guanfacine report improvements in behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, stereotypies, self-stimulation, inappropriate speech, irritability, aggression, and oppositional behavior as a frequent side-effect in individuals with ASD.
Mood Stabilizers: These drugs (such as Divalproex sodium (Valproic Acid), Lamotrigine (Lamictal) or Topiramate (Topomax)) are most commonly used to treat seizures, bipolar disorder, and some behavioral symptoms. Some studies have started to assess behavior changes associated with these medications with mixed outcomes. Such medications are occasionally tried on a case-by-case basis.
Antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not been clearly beneficial for individuals with ASD and are sometimes associated with side effects. However, SSRIs are sometimes used to target specific symptoms such as aggression, self-injurious behavior, and anxiety.
Stimulants: Individuals with ASD often have significant problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) provides diagnosis criteria for both ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Because DSM rules exclude adding an ADHS diagnosis when an ASD diagnosis has already been made, the prevalence of ADHD in children and youth with ASD is unknown.
Available research tells us that stimulants tend to produce highly variable responses in children with both ASD and ADHD symptoms. On average, the response in children with ASD may be less favorable than in typically developing children, and there may be a greater chance of side effects. This said, stimulants may still be a reasonable first therapeutic choice for previously untreated children with ASD and uncomplicated ADHD. As with any individual with ADHD, stimulant treatment should be implemented in increments using systematic monitoring for improvements and side effects (such as insomnia, abdominal pain, headache and loss of appetite).
Anticonvulsants: Individuals with ASD have a higher incidence of seizures and epilepsy compared to the general population and may require anticonvulsant medication to treat seizures.
Sleep Medications: Individuals with Autism have higher rates of sleep disturbance compared to the general population. Some medications used to treat sleep disturbances include: clonidine, trazodone, melatonin, and antihistamines. Studies have demonstrated that individuals with ASD may have abnormal production of melatonin, and preliminary studies have shown melatonin to be a safe and effective sleep aid in children with ASD. Interestingly, in an open-label study with 33 subjects, the restless sleep of children with ASD and iron deficiency improved with iron supplementation.
Gastrointestinal agents: While yet controversial and difficult to assess, many studies point to an increased incidence of gastrointestinal issues (such as chronic diarrhea, constipation, or acid reflux disease) in individuals with ASD. It is thought that reducing these symptoms may allow a child to gain maximum benefit from behavioral and educational therapies. Medications such as probiotics, ranitidine (Zantac), or famotidine (PepcidTM) may be prescribed for specific gastrointestinal conditions.
Probiotics have been shown to have a positive effect on diarrhea. While probiotics may improve gastrointestinal function (for example, decreasing diarrhea), studies have not evaluated whether probiotics are associated with core ASD symptoms (such as social interactions or communication). More than 12 well-designed randomized controlled research studies failed to demonstrate any effect of secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone, on ASD symptoms.
See medication resources .
Some experts and parents believe that children with ASD do not break down or process the nutrients they consume in expected ways. To address this, providers sometimes recommend a daily multi-vitamin, especially if the children:
The use of mega-dose vitamins and nutritional supplements beyond a multi-vitamin are not fully supported for routine use. Below is a list of some vitamins and supplements that have been recently studied regarding their use with individuals with ASD.
Research on Omega-3 fatty acids is preliminary but encouraging. These "essential" fatty influence various central nervous and immune system biochemical processes. Experts, such as Young and Richardson, also believe that Omega-3 fatty acids play a role in various neuropsychiatric or brain disorders. The current U.S. diet is thought to include too many Omega-6s and too few Omega-3s. Somewhat conflicting studies by Sliwinski and Vancassell have shown that children with Autism may have increased or decreased levels of Omega-3s compared to children without ASD.
Recent studies by Amminger, Bell, and Patrick have found that increasing Omega-3s in the diet is associated with improvements in people with ASD, particularly in hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors, as well as cognitive and motor skills, concentration, eye contact, sociability, and sleep. (And one study based on parental report suggested that infants who received essential fatty acid supplements in their breast milk or formula were less likely to develop ASD.)
See omega-3 resources .
The food a person eats affects the body in many ways. Many children with ASD follow specific diets, often because caregivers report that dietary interventions correlate with improvements in behaviors or medical symptoms (such as reflux, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or eczema). Some commonly followed diets include:
Kvinsberg's 2002 study suggested that a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet in individuals with Autism reduces Autistic traits; other studies have found no significant difference. Larger randomized controlled trials of GFCF diets are currently underway. While no evidence-based studies have evaluated their efficacy, digestive enzymes are often used for the purpose of aiding in digestion of proteins such as gluten and casein. Families choosing to utilize a GFCF diet should ensure adequate nutrition with particular attention to protein, vitamin D, and calcium.
See dietary resources .
Mind-body approaches  aim to support the body through various methods, including decreasing anxiety and self-regulation techniques. Some of the following examples are supported by preliminary studies but are all still considered experimental: yoga , music therapy , craniosacral massage , massage/therapeutic touch , aromatherapy , pet therapy (i.e. horses, dogs), and auditory integration.
See mind-body resources .
Below are a couple of alternative therapies with limited supporting evidence that pose significant risks.
The connection between the immune system and ASD is being studied. It has been reported that children with ASD are more likely to have infectious and allergy-related disorders, and many abnormalities have been reported related to the functioning of the immune system. Some immune system-altering medications used by children with ASD include: intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), anti-viral medications, anti-fungal medications, and steroids. IVIG is not FDA-approved for Autism, it is costly and may carry risks of headaches, anaphylactic shock, meningitis, or infectious disease. While one study by Sandler reported short-term behavioral improvements in 11 children taking vancomycin, further studies are not available.
It should be noted that while anti-infectives are frequently used in general medical practice for things such as ear infections, all come with potential side effects, such as rash, allergy, disruption of gastrointestinal flora, or liver damage. Long-term steroids carry many potential risks, including bone fractures, effects on height and metabolism, and immunosupression.
See immunological resources .
The use of HBOT in individuals with ASD has been suggested for its ability to increase blood flow in the brain, reduce inflammation, and reduce oxidative stress. A preliminary multi-site randomized controlled trial by Rossingol revealed significant improvements in overall functioning, receptive language, social interaction, eye contact, and sensory/cognitive awareness after HBOT in individuals with Autism. However, a subsequent similar study by Granpeesheha did not find HBOT to be effective in multiple assessments. HBOT carries significant potential risks, including ear pain and oxygen toxicity, and it can be expensive. Further investigation is necessary to determine safety and efficacy.
See HBOT resources .
Some experts and partents theorize that individuals with ASD have less capacity to clear heavy metals or are more susceptible to the effects of heavy metals on immune function and the central nervous system. Chelation therapy involves the use of agents to remove heavy metals from the body. No controlled studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of chelation in individuals with ASD. Chelation carries serious risks of vomiting, netropenia, and death. One death occurred in a child with Autism due to hypocalcemia (low serum calcium levels in the blood) resulting from the inappropriate use of EDTA (a chelator). Deaths attributed to chelation complications have also occurred in individuals without ASD.
See chelation resources .
Central Place of Care or Health Home: It is critical to have a working relationship with a provider, or team of providers, who can help you navigate through the numerous therapies and treatments for ASD. At least one central provider or team should know all the therapies and treatments used by you or your child. The provider can be a conventional physician, nurse practitioner, therapist, or other professional who is philosophically aligned with your perspective on the disease.
Collect Data: People with ASD are unique individuals and may respond to treatments differently. It is important to monitor progress with a new treatment or therapy. Work with a professional to choose target behaviors or symptoms (i.e., improved eye contact, less diarrhea, etc.) and specific methods to rate these target behaviors (such as a 1-5 rating scale on a calendar). Collect data before and after you make the treatment change. Make only one change at a time. Consider not telling (blinding) one parent, a therapist, or teacher about the treatment and asking for their evaluation of the child. Work with a professional to review the data and evaluate whether the treatment correlates with improvements.
Consider External Factors: Recognize all the factors that could influence your treatment trial. Take natural child development into account and recognize that all children go through stages during which they gain new skills or may focus less on other skills previously acquired. Additionally, all people have "good days" and "bad days." People are also influenced by their environment (i.e., a disrupted schedule due to the holidays, less sunlight in the wintertime, a new teacher, etc.). Recognize that these typical stages of development and "ups and downs" may correlate with a new treatment. Parents' feelings of anxiety or hope can also influence their perception of the "results" or their treatment of the child. Ensure that your treatment trial is long enough to account for these types of normal variation.
Educate Yourself: Learn all you can about treatments and, in addition to proposed benefits, be sure to inquire about potential risks, such as cost, time, or side effects. Use the same instincts you have developed as a consumer to make judgments about potential "hype." Ask about the evidence behind a treatment, realizing that while randomized controlled clinical trials are the highest level of evidence, they are challenging to conduct in individuals with ASD.
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 
Autism Science Foundation 
Autism Speaks 
Interactive Autism Network (IAN) 
Autism Research Institute (ARI) 
Autism Treatment Network (ATN) 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Autism Information Center 
Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) 
Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) 
M.I.N.D. Institute (Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders) 
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Institute for Functional Medicine 
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) 
PedCAM Network 
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