Coronary artery disease (CAD) is usually caused by atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty material and plaque build up on the walls of the arteries and cause them to narrow. As the coronary arteries narrow, blood flow to the heart can be partially or completely blocked. This results in a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle, which leads to chest pain. A heart attack results when heart muscle is damaged. CAD can also result in heart failure or sudden cardiac death.
The following factors increase your risk of CAD:
However, young adults (age 24-29) with common risk factors, like smoking, obesity, and elevated cholesterol, have a 25 percent risk of having significant narrowing of the coronary arteries. Therefore, all individuals, regardless of age, should follow a healthy lifestyle, including exercise , diet,  weight control, and smoking cessation to reduce their risk of heart disease.
For more information, see The American Heart Association .
When your physician diagnoses coronary artery disease, it is likely that he or she will suggest basic lifestyle changes. Depending on your specific symptoms and history, the physician may also suggest one or more of the following:
Procedures or surgery:
The following basic lifestyle changes can improve your heart health:
Another important element for cardiac patients is the active participation of their family and support systems. Major lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, stress management, and communication practices are most effectively implemented with the participation of the immediate family members.
Those same family members, especially spouses and partners, also need to make adaptations when their partner is diagnosed with serious cardiac disease. Scroll down to see a list of books that are helpful resources.
Coronary artery disease is one of the few areas in which we have outcomes data on the actual application of an integrated and holistic approach. The work of Dr. Dean Ornish has been ground-breaking, contributing to lifestyle recommendations that are now mainstream and conventional. These include a lifestyle regimen featuring yoga , meditation , a low-fat vegetarian diet, smoking cessation, regular exercise , and community support. This program not only stops the progression of CAD, but actually reverses it.
Dr. Ornish's research has also shown that the social support -the "heart connection"-is critical. In his book, Love and Survival, he recommends eight ways to find the love you need:
The use of mind/body practices lowers the excitation level of the body, which has positive impacts on blood pressure, cholesterol levels, sugar metabolism (and therefore diabetes ), mood state, sleeping patterns, and communication abilities. Their use is recommended by the American College of Cardiology.
The HeartMath Institute  has done extensive research into the benefits, cardiac and other, of mind/body practices, and is an excellent resource for educational materials, research findings, and tools for relaxation practices.
While there are extensive resources available for learning and practicing such techniques on one's own, instruction from a teacher or practitioner is helpful, and practice with others is very supportive. Wherever you live, it is likely you can find local resources through colleges and schools, community centers, churches, and health clubs. Because these practices are things you learn to do for yourself, long term financial impacts are minimal.
Ideally, nutritional substances are optimally obtained through the food we eat. However, some supplemental substances have been found to be of some benefit for those with CAD. Typical doses for each botanical are indicated below. However, you should talk with your healthcare provider before adding botanicals to your health regimen and ask about the right dosage for you.
Individuals with coronary artery disease are generally on prescription medications to protect the heart. Changing or stopping that medication can be potentially life-threatening. If individuals with CAD pursue complementary therapies, such as homeopathy , Traditional Chinese Medicine , or naturopathy , it is critical that their providers consider potential drug interactions between cardiac medications and any natural products (for example, Chinese herbs ).
It is also critical that individuals contact their medical provider when they experience new or worsening cardiac symptoms, such as new or changed chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness. While they may also use complementary therapies while awaiting an ambulance, such as homeopathic Arnica taken sublingually, they should never replace or delay appropriate and life-saving interventions.
The American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1200000 
HeartMath Institute http://www.heartmath.org/ 
Healthline http://www.healthline.com/health/high-cholesterol 
Heartmates, A Guide for the Spouse and Family of the Heart Patient and The Heartmates Journal, A Companion for Partners of People with Serious Illness, available at http://www.heartmates.com/ .
Guarneri, M., MD (2006). The Heart Speaks: A Cardiologist Reveals the Secret Language of Healing . Simon and Schuster.
Ornish, D., MD (1999). Love and Survival. HarperCollins Publishers.
Oz, M., MD, Ornish, D., MD (1998). Healing from the Heart: A Leading Surgeon Combines Eastern and Western Traditions to Create the Medicine of the Future . Plume.